The spiritual Aqeeda and the political Aqeeda
Bismillahi Al-Rahman Al-Raheem
The spiritual Aqeeda and the political Aqeeda1- The spiritual Aqeeda would be the basis in the study of governing the hereafter's affairs, while the political Aqeeda would be the basis in the study of governing life's affairs. Therefore, every thought, adopted as an unprecedented basis, would be considered a Aqeeda from which emanates a host of other thoughts and rules. If the thoughts and rules were related to matters of the hereafter, such as the Day of Judgement, reward, punishment and rituals, or related to the governing of these matters, i.e. the hereafter's affairs, such as admonition, guidance, warning against the punishment of Allah (SWT) and the enticement to His reward, this Aqeeda would therefore be a spiritual Aqeeda. Whereas if the thoughts and rules were related to life's affairs, such as the Qadar, the commandment (Taklif), the goodness, the evil, the good and the bad, and such as the trade, the rental, marriage, partnership and inheritance, or related to the governing of these affairs, i.e. life's affairs, such as the appointment of an Amir of a group, the obedience of such an Amir and his calling to account, and such as the penal codes and Jihad; such a Aqeeda would be a political Aqeeda. 2- Christianity would be described as a spiritual Aqeeda because the thoughts and the rules which emanate from it are related to the hereafter's affairs, so are the thoughts related to the governing of these affairs, i.e. the hereafter's affairs, and which emanate from the Christian Aqeeda, they also are related to the affairs of the hereafter.
Capitalism would be a political Aqeeda, because the thoughts and the rules which emanate from it are related to life's affairs, such as freedom and expediency, so are the thoughts which are related to the governing of these affairs, i.e. life's affairs, and which emanate from the capitalist Aqeeda, they also are related to life's affairs, such as democracy and fighting.
Socialism, including communism, would also be a political Aqeeda because the thoughts and rules which emanate from it are related to life's affairs, such as the restriction of ownership or its total ban, and also the thoughts and rules which are related to the governing of these affairs, i.e. life's affairs, and which emanate from the socialist Aqeeda, they are also related to life's affairs, such as the confining of democracy to the working class and also such as the workers' dictatorship.
As for the Islamic Aqeeda, it would be a political and spiritual Aqeeda, because from it emanate thoughts and rules related to the hereafter's affairs, and also thoughts and rules related to life's affairs, so are the thoughts and rules which are related to the governing of affairs, and which emanate from the Islamic Aqeeda, some of them are related to the governing of the hereafter's affairs and others are related to the governing of life's affairs.
3- The spiritual Aqeeda would not form a viewpoint about life because it is related to what had come before life and what comes after life, it has no relation to life, hence it would do it no harm if any political Aqeeda were to be implemented upon it; and it would be easy to implement upon it any political Aqeeda without any resistance at all, for what is nowadays known as the ideology, is lacking in the spiritual Aqeeda. As for the political Aqeeda, it forms a viewpoint about life, for it is in itself a specific and defined thought about temporal life, and the thoughts and rules which emanate from it are specific, defined and unlimited and related to temporal life. Therefore, the political Aqeeda shapes life in a special way, and this shaping would be according to the thought of the Aqeeda, hence it would be difficult to implement upon a group of people who carry a political Aqeeda another political Aqeeda, unless by the sword and the bullet, or after convincing them about the corruption of their political Aqeeda, thus they would adopt the ruling political Aqeeda as their own political Aqeeda. That is why, it had been easy for the western countries to colonise the Congo, however, it had been hard for them to colonise Algeria, except by force.
4- The viewpoint, or what is known as the ideology, which capitalism confers is known as expediency and its method is the general freedoms: The freedom of creed, the freedom of ownership, personal freedom and the freedom of expression. Hence it shapes life with expediency, and in order to achieve it, there ought to be freedoms. As for the viewpoint conferred by socialism, this would be the evolution, i.e the moving from one situation to a better situation in an unprompted manner; its method would be the contradictions, i.e. the conflict of contrarieties. It shapes life as being a constant evolution, i.e. as being a transition from one state to a better one in an inevitable manner. In order to achieve this evolution i.e. this transition towards a better condition, it would be necessary to encourage the contradictions if they already existed, and it would necessary to generate them if they did not exist.
As for the viewpoint conferred by the Islamic Aqeeda, it is the Halal and the Haram and its method is the abiding by the Sharia'a rule; hence it shapes life as being the Halal and the Haram. Therefore, whatever were Halal, be it Wajib, Mandub or Mubah, would be taken without hesitation, and whatever were Makruh would be taken hesitantly, with no sin resulting from its taking, and whatever were Haram, it would not be taken.
5- When the west carried out the cultural invasion, they specifically targeted the Islamic viewpoint, such as their attack on the Aqeeda of Qadar, on the Muslim's sanctification of the prophethood of Mohammed (SAW) and on the Sahaba. One of the weapons used in their attack was the removal of the confidence in the ability of the Sharia'a rules to deal with contemporary problems, such as their attack on the rules of Jihad, claiming that Islam was based on fighting and savagery, on polygamy and divorce etc. One of their weapons was also their attack on the application of the Sharia'a rule, supporting this attack with the opinions of certain scholars. What some scholars said about the "Public Interests" (Al-Masalih Al-Mursalah), "Consideration of the Interest" (Ri'ayat Al-Maslaha), the "Application of Customs" (Tahkeem Al-Urf) and the changing of rules in accordance to the changing of times, all this has been used by the west as a tool in order to establish expediency as the criterion of the actions, rather than the Sharia'a rule. This consequently lead to a weakness in the adoption of the Halal and the Haram as a criterion. This weakness crept in gradually, hence it was at first reflected in the shape of making expediency the basis of the Sharia'a rule rather than the Dalil (evidence). The quotes of some scholars stating that: "Wherever the interest would be, the rule of Allah would be." have been used as a means to establish expediency as the criterion for the Sharia'a rule, then this weakness gradually went on to allow expediency to become the criterion of life.
When the westerners occupied and ruled over the Islamic lands, imposing all their hegemony over it, they set about spreading their Aqeeda, which is the separation of the Deen from the state and concentrating what they had established in terms of their viewpoint, which is expediency, until this overshadowed the Islamic viewpoint of many people. The overwhelming viewpoint in the Islamic lands has led to the adoption of expediency as the criterion of life, even though there remained a trace of the Halal and Haram as the criterion of life.
6- The Islamic countries were in 1954 infested by the thought of establishing a new ideology, i.e. a viewpoint about life. This thought has also swept away the sentiments of patriotism and socialism, hence expediency consorted with the thought of evolution and progress and the determinism of history; in other words, there were attempts at blending the capitalist viewpoint with the socialist viewpoint. However, this remained a mere publicity and no one actually adopted it, however, the thought of expediency, i.e. the western viewpoint, managed to infiltrate and the feeling run high about the need to change the whole of society and turn it into another society, able to progress with modern times, i.e. to progress with the west and the east. The status quo has eventually in 1964 become as follows: The capitalist viewpoint, i.e. the western ideology spread, coupled with a high expectation for the socialist viewpoint, i.e. the communist ideology, and alongside an overwhelming feeling for the need to change the whole of society. The rulers followed this trend, backed by the west and the east, and the majority of intellectuals adopted this ideology while the common people were almost seduced by it.
7- It is noted that the Islamic Aqeeda has no longer become a political Aqeeda, however it remained a spiritual Aqeeda, and the viewpoint which this Aqeeda forms has become non existent in life's reality, although it is still carried by individuals. Hence the area of the ailment is concentrated in these two matters: The defect that has crept into the fundamental of concepts about life, which is the political Aqeeda, and the defect that has crept into the shaping of life which the political Aqeeda forms. In the past, the shaping of life has been the Halal and the Haram, but now the shaping of life has become expediency.
8- The method to cure such ailment would be to start with the Aqeeda, by explaining the fact that it is a political Aqeeda and emphasising this in an effective manner, by highlighting the spiritual side of this Aqeeda, for this side is familiar to everyone. Also by linking the Aqeeda to the thoughts about life and the governing of life's affairs, this by linking the Iman (belief) in Allah (SWT) to the Iman in the Qur'an and to the meaning of believing in the Qur'an, then by linking Iman in the Message of Mohammed (SAW) and his prophethood to the Sunnah and to the meaning of the believing in the Sunnah, then after all this, move to the viewpoint which this Aqeeda forms, i.e. move to the criterion of life, which is the Halal and the Haram, and to stress that the shaping of life according to Islam is the Halal and the Haram and not expediency, nor the evolution, or what is referred to as progressivism.
9- The Aqeeda means the "decisive belief" (Al-Tasdeeq-ul-Jazim), and the indecisive belief is not Aqeeda. The decisive belief makes it necessary, even inevitable to reject anything that is not decisively believable, not what comes inevitably alongside what is decisively believable (i.e. Sharia'a rule, which usually accompanies or is close to a Aqeeda matter), and in this it has no choice. For instance, if we were to say: This is permitted, it would not be Aqeeda because it would not be a decisive belief, but a mere belief. Hence to believe decisively (I'tiqad) that the Qur'an is the word of Allah means to believe decisively that only the Qur'an is valid because it is Revelation from Allah (SWT). To say that it is valid and anything else is invalid would not be considered a decisive belief but merely a belief (Tasdeeq). Likewise, to believe decisively that the Hadith -if proven to be sound- of the Messenger of Allah (SAW) is the only valid Hadith, means to believe that only his Hadith (SAW) is valid because it is Revelation from Allah (SWT). However, to say that it is valid and anything else is invalid would not be considered decisive belief, but mere belief.
Therefore, the Aqeeda would necessitate the decisiveness with the belief. If the decisiveness were lacking, it would no longer carry the quality of decisive belief. The viewpoint is linked to the Aqeeda, thus if one were to claim that the Sharia'a rule has come for the sake of expediency and that this viewpoint represented this expediency, in this case there would be a defect in the linking of the viewpoint to the Aqeeda. This defect would be corrected by stating that the Sharia'a rule has as evidence the Sharia'a text, i.e. what has come as "Wahi" from Allah (SWT), and that its evidence is not expediency.
If one were to say that the Sharia'a rule would not be suitable in this day and age, notwithstanding its suitability in the past, and that what would be suitable nowadays would be expediency, or the contemporary laws, in this case there would be a defect in the Aqeeda and in its linking to the viewpoint, thus this defect should be dealt with by explaining that the decisive belief in the existence of Allah (SWT) and in the prophethood of Mohammed (SAW) contradicts this. Because the address in the Qur'an and the Hadith is directed at all people and at all times. Once this issue is dealt with, we move towards redressing the link, so if one were to say that the shaping of life according to the Halal and Haram would not contradict its shaping with expediency, then there would be a defect in the link, so this defect should be dealt with by stating that the Halal and the Haram has as evidence the Sharia'a texts and not expediency. What is required is the Sharia'a and not the benefit or expediency.
If one were to say that the shaping of life according to the Halal and the Haram would not be suitable for this day and age, but what would be suitable is the benefit or expediency, in this case, there would be a defect in the Aqeeda and in the link, thus this defect should be treated by stating that the Book of Allah has been revealed for all humans at all times and not just for a specific era, then once this is dealt with, we move towards redressing the link.
30th Rajab 1388 a.h.
22nd October 1968