Hadith (Tradition) of Siyam

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Hadith (Tradition) of Siyam

For the 98th year, Muslims have been living without an Imam ruling by the Shariah of Allah - which He has approved for us as our Deen - and without a state taking care of their affairs and applying its rulings on them. The Kafir West exploit al-Ruwaybidat (lowly and despicable men), whom they appointed as presidents, kings and emirs over Muslims’ countries to guard the borders of Sykes-Picot, and divide Muslims under the flags and banners of Jahiliyah (pre-Islamic ignorance) that Islam has rejected, such that each “country” decides the day of fasting and day of Eid separately or for exigent political interests. Some of them will apply astronomical (lunar) calculations relating to the time of the crescent’s birth and this is contrary to the Hadith of the Messenger (saw) “Fast upon sighting it and end your fast upon sighting it” while others will depend on the sighting of the (moon's) crescent to confirm the start of the month. The difference in the beginning of fasting and Eid between these countries is usually politically motivated to dismantle the unity of Muslims and poison their Deen and Aqeedah, which is embodied in the unity of fasting and breaking the fast, the unity of their state, their Khalifah and banner

Muslims have a choice between two options, there being no third for them: either to obey the created, or to obey the Creator; and there is no way to attain contentment except by obeying the Creator and upholding His command and His prohibition. For Allah ta'aala says, 'This day I have perfected for you your Deen and completed My favour upon you and approved al-Islam as a Deen for you.' (TMQ). Allah ta'aala ordered His Rasool (saw) with the conveying (of the message of Islam). 'Oh Messenger. Convey whatever has been revealed to you from your Rabb and if you do not do this then you will not have conveyed His message.' (TMQ). Allah ta'aala ordered us with al-Taa'ah (obedience). 'But nay, by your Rabb, they will not believe (in truth) until they make you judge of what is in dispute between them and find within themselves no dislike of that which you decide, and submit with full submission.' (TMQ). Allah ta'aala also says in the Qur'an, 'It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allâh and His Messenger have decreed a matter, that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allâh and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed into a plain error.' (TMQ)

And the Messenger (saw) said, 'By the One in whose Hand is my soul, I have certainly been sent with that which is pure and clear proof' and he alayhi al-salatu wa al-salam said, 'Even if Mūsā were alive, he would have no choice but to follow me.'

Thus, he alayhi al-salatu wa al-salam clarified for the Ummah all the matters of Deen with the text of the ayaat (verses) and the Hadith, and left the Ummah on the pure reasoning and proof whose night is like its day and only those who will perish will stray from it. 'And whoever disobeys Allâh and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed into a plain error.' (TMQ). Among the things he made clear to them was that he explained to them when they should fast and when they should end their fast and bound that to correct sighting of the Hilal (crescent) of the month of Ramadan or Shawwal. He also made clear to them how they calculate months and years.

'It is He who made the sun a shining light and the moon a derived light and determined for it phases - that you may know the number of years and account [of time]. Allah has not created this except in truth.'(TMQ) And the manner with which to understand the entry of the month and its departure; 'Lo! The number of the months with Allah is twelve monthsby Allah's ordinance in the day that He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred: that is the right religion.' (TMQ) And Allah ta'aala says, 'They ask thee, (O Muhammad), of new moons; Say: "They are fixed seasons for mankind and for the Hajj".' (TMQ)

So with his (saw) manifest statement the Muslims dispensed with others, for he (saw) did not leave a place of deficiency or defect in their Deen, rather he perfected their Deen and completed it. 'This day I have perfected for you your Deen' (TMQ) and 'And We revealed to you the message that you may make clear to the people what was sent down to them and that they might give thought.' (TMQ)

He (saw) demonstrated to them their Deen in its totality such that they are only required to understand its texts and to derive the Ahkam from these for all of life's issues. Therefore, the radix (source) to follow the Hukm Shar'i in fasting and fitr (breaking fast), and in Usool al-Fiqh (foundations of jurisprudence), Ibadaat (worships) are Tawqifiyyah (invariable or fixed). The Prophet (saw) directed us to specify the start of the fast by Ru’yah (sighting) the crescent of Ramadan and to commence fitr (end fasting) by Ru’yah of the crescent of Shawwal. He (saw) did not request Muslims to use calculations to know the time of the birth of the moon, regardless of its ease for Muslims throughout the ages to do so, rather he ordered them to fast with Ru’yah (sighting) the crescent and to make fitr with Ru’yah.

So that we comprehend the Shar’i requirement from us, it is an obligation upon us to limit the linguistic and Shar'i Mafaheem (concepts) that relate to al-Hilal (the crescent) and al-Ru’yah (sighting).Shahr (month) linguistically, as reported in the Mu’jam Maqayees al-Lughah (Dictionary of Language) by ibn Fares, means “clarity in a matter and enlightenment of this month, and in the speech of the Arabs, al-Hilal, then named every thirty days by thename of al-Hilal and said it was Shahr (month)”. Sheikh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) in “Majmoo’ al-Fatawa” said, 'Al-Hilal is taken from appearance and raising of voice (ie announcement), while it is derived from the actions of Ademites who say: "We witnessed al-Hilal" (ahlalna al-Hilal), we have begun the month (istahlalnah), thus there is no Hilal except whatever was witnessed (istahal)". Further, al-Hilal is the beginning of the moon (waxing crescent) as ibn Mandhoor said, 'Al-Hilal is Ghurat al-Qamar (the early aspect of the moon and its most prominent) when people witness it at the advent of the month and it is called Hilal for the first two nights of the month and then not referred to as al-Hilal until it re-appears in the following month.' As for in Shari’ah, the month is a reference to the “lunar month”.

As for the Ru’yah, it is “seeing or sighting by the eye or vision”. The Shari’ah Ru’yah considered acceptable by the four schools of Islamic Jurisprudence is the Ru’yah after sunset and not the daytime sighting which has no effect amongst the majority of Ulema. Ru’yah does not require the assembly of Muslims or a specific number of them, for Rasool Allah’s statement 'Witness it' means the absolute witnessing and his statement 'Fast' and 'End your fast' is general including all people on this earth, there being neither difference between one country and another nor between (one) Muslim and (another) Muslim.

Thus al-Hukm al-Shar'i has made the rising of the crescent of Ramadan a Sabab (cause) for fasting, i.e. a known indicator/sign of the existence of the fasting of Ramadan; that is to say, if the people of a country see the crescent, then all the Muslims have seen it. And whoever witnessed it is a Hujjah (proof) for whoever did not see it.

Al-Bukhari narrated from ibn Omar that 'the Messenger (saw) mentioned Ramadan and said: 'Do not fast until you sight al-Hilal, and do not end your fast until you sight it and if it is obscured then estimate the days' and he also said, 'The month is twenty-nine nights, do not fastuntil you sight it and if it is obscured complete the term thirty' and he said: 'I heard the Messenger (saw) say: "If you sight it, end your fast and if it is obscured estimate the days”. He also narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger (saw) said: 'Fast based on sighting it and end your fast based on sighting it and if it is unseen complete the term of Sha’ban'; thus, he obligated the fast on the following day once sighted and tied fasting to sighting of al-Hilal such that if the sighting is obscured he ordered to complete the term 30 days. He neither tied the fast or ending of the fast to the “birth” of the moon or touched upon the subject. The Legislator installed the Ru’yah as the Sabab (cause) of fasting and if its rise is not sighted the Sabab Shar'i is not met; the Hukm is not proven by calculation or otherwise, even if it is accurate or definitive, the reason being that the Legislator did not establish it as a Sabab and did not obligate fasting by it. This is further confirmed by the narration of Al-Bukhari that ibn Omar said that he Messenger (saw) said, 'We are an illiterate Ummah; we do not write or calculate, the month is such and such meaning twenty-nine days and thirty days'. 

Calculation in this context refers to calculating the motion of three bodies relative to each other, i.e. it involves solving a three-body problem involving the orbit of the moon around the earth, and then the orbit of the earth and moon motion which is also orbiting the sun; thus it is evident from the context that it conveys the rejection of tying the hukm to calculation.

Al-Imam al-Nawawi said regarding it: (Rasool (saw) said "Fast for sighting it and end your fast for sighting it”; the meaning is the Ru’yah of some of the Muslims and does not pre-requisite the Ru’yah of every Insan (human), rather the sighting of two just persons suffices for all people), this being evident in the narration of ibn Omar who said, 'The people sighted al-Hilal and I told the Messenger (saw) that it was sighted, so he fasted and ordered the people to fast' and it is evident from the narration of ibn Abbas that 'an Arab came to al-Naby (saw) and said, "I sighted al-Hilal tonight" so he (Rasoolullah) said, “Do you bear witness that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger?" He said, "Yes, and he (Rasoolullah) said, "Call o’ Bilal to the people to fast tomorrow”. Ibn Taymiyyah said, 'If its rise in the sky is not manifest on earth it has no Hukm, neither outwardly or inwardly, so that if it is witnessed (istahal) by one or two who did not declare it then that is not a Hilal. No Hukm is proven until they declare it and this declaration is al-Ihlal, which is the raising of the voices to disclose the sighting. And because Takleef  (responsibility) follows Ilm (knowledge), then if you have no knowledge you are not obligated to fast'. This Yaqeen (decisiveness) through Ru’yah is confirmed by ibn Abdul-Bir in “al-Tamheed” who said, 'No fasting of Ramadan should be undertaken without Yaqeen that the month of Sha’ban has ended, this Yaqeen only being met by the sighting of al-Hilal or completing thirty days (of) Sha’ban.’

It is therefore incorrect in fasting and ending of the fast to consider other than the Ru’yah Shar’iyyah, this being the Ru’yah that a just Muslim bears witness to knowing what they have sighted. The borders that divide us should have no bearing on the difference in fasting and ending of the fast amongst Muslims, regardless of the differences or distances between their lands.

Dear Muslims…

The month of Ramadan is the month of Islam, in which the Da’wah began, the state was stabilised and the Muslims were victorious, and the attacks of the Kuffar against Muslim lands were crushed. This month is the glory of Islam and Muslims in this world and the hereafter, drawing closer to Allah in it is magnificent and doing good in it is great, its fasting is ashield and its Qiyam (standing in Salat) is a Sunnah. Allah honoured it with Laylat ul-Qadr (night of power) and singled it out with a great reward. Every deed of a son of Adam increases a good deed by 10 to 700 times. Allah Azza wa Jall said: “Except for fasting, which is for me and I reward for it.”

During this honourable month the Prophet (saw) would increase his exertion over other months in Ibadah and Sadaqah and all nature of good deeds. The Sahabah followed his example such that they would exert more effort to become closer to Allah in Ramadan than they normally would in other months. The Messenger (saw) is our Uswah Hassanah (beautiful example). Even as we strive continually to work sincerely to resume the Islamic (way of) life on earth, it is befitting of us during the month of fasting that we should strive to become closer to Allah and multiply our efforts to carry the Da'wah and propagate it; as the Rasool (saw) said, 'By Allah, should Allah grant Hidaya (guidance) to one man, it is better for you than red camels". How valuable would this be if this were to happen in Ramadan?

We ask al-Mawla Azza wa Jall to assist Muslims in their work for the advancement of their Deen and the resumption of their Islamic way of life, by applying the Shar' (Law) of their Rabb (Lord), and carrying it as a message to the whole world.

And Allah is al-Hadi (the Guider) and al-Muwaffiq (granter of success) to the sound way.

29 Shaaban 1443h

1 April 2022